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25 August 2014 In Blogs

Global warming refers to a recent increase in the global temperatures, in the Earth’s atmosphere. The increase is gradual and has been happening in the past centuries up to date. The trend started off in the late nineteenth century, and the main reasons that can be associated to the rise in temperatures are activities carried out by human beings. Greenhouse gases take the blame for the gradual increase in temperatures and happen to the main contributors (Houghton, 2004). In the past few decades, the emission of green house gases to the earth’s atmosphere has been on the rise. The causes of global warming vary from natural causes to human causes, which are discussed below. The effects of the increase in temperatures and possible ways to avert the causes brought about by global warming are also highlighted.

            The emergence of the topic of global warming can be traced to the beginning of the nineteenth century. This was after the ice ages and other natural changes in the paleoclimate were suspected. There was also the discovery of the first natural green house gas effect. Back then, the scientists argued that emissions of green house gases produced by human could change the effect on the climate. However, after deeper and deeper research, this theory was disputed and other methods had to be sorted. In the 1960’s the warming effect caused by carbon (iv) oxide became easily detectable. This prompted the increase in research by scientists on how to combat this problem. Since 1990, scientists have been working extra hard to try and contain this epidemic. They also work hard to ensure they warn people and companies of the activities that they should avoid.

  Scientists have spent quite some time before they could come up with the main causes of global warming. Their discoveries shed light on two causes of global warming; natural causes and human related causes (Goldstein, 2009). One such natural cause is methane gas, which is released, from wetlands and the arctic tundra. Methane gas is one of the greenhouse gases which its heat is trapped in the atmosphere. The earth is also undergoing through a natural climate change cycle and its lasts for about forty thousand years. Volcano eruptions also happen to be another natural cause of global warming. Although green house gases are necessary for maintaining global temperatures, if they are released excessively the results may be catastrophic.

            The larger end of global warming causes is those caused by activities carried out by man. The bigger contributor being the gases produced through the burning of fossil fuels. The use of gas and oil in automobiles and industries when burned produces CO2, SO2, and methane gas. These two gases are the main contributors of the increase of green house gases in the atmosphere. The green house gases are responsible for the rise in global temperatures. This rise in global temperatures not only affects human life but nature also has a problem keeping up with the temperatures.

            Deforestation which is the unplanned reduction of forest covers also accelerates the rate of global warming. Trees take in CO2 in the night and reduce the concentration of the gas in the environment. Hence, with a reduction in forest cover, the amount of CO2 in the atmosphere will rise. Rise in population leads to the increase of deforestation in search of habitats for the increasing population. The increase in population also increases the CO2 rate since human breathe out the gas (Fern, 2009).

            The effects of global warming are very wide and include an ecological and economic basis. The effects act as evidence to a few people who still argue that global warming is a myth. The melting of ice in the Earth’s poles and mountain glaciers is one very viewable effect. In about thirty years, researcher Bill Fraser was able to establish the decline in the number of penguins on Antarctica. In that time span, their numbers have fallen from 32,000 to 11,000 breeding pairs. There has been the migration of some breeds of plants further north to higher and cooler places to avoid the heat levels (Kowalski, 2004). On average, in the past few decades as a result of global warming the sea level rise and the levels of rain and snow have also increased.

            The effects of global warming have not spared Kenya as well. Our nation is suffering the same cause the whole globe is suffering due to the ignorance of human beings. The effects of global warming in Kenya include irregular weather patterns, seasonal floods and droughts and a rise in temperature. This is the reason why Kenya’s agriculture has been affected in a way. Since farmers can no longer predict the perfect time to plant or harvest. The weather patterns have turned completely irregular and it is very easy for one to predict what will happen next. At the coast, there are records of rise in the sea level which happen to raise alarm. What will happen in the future cannot be predicted; all we can do is to try and change the situation than wait for things to get worse.

            In conclusion, it is very important for everyone to agree that global warming is real. Every human being should make it their personal role to reduce the damage already done. If no action is taken, the effects that happen later on in this century will be much adverse and the damage will be intolerable (Archer, 2012). Hurricanes and storms will become stronger; floods become more common, fresh water will reduce, spread of waterborne diseases like malaria and the extinction of some species due to ecological changes. Therefore, governments should come with ways in which the public can be involved in fighting this epidemic before it consumes all humans alive.

 

 

25 August 2014 In Blogs

The 2011 elections were instigated by Liberal party leader’s motion of no-confidence. While the liberal party seemed to enjoy large support among Canadians, the results of the election would prove them wrong. The results of the party delivered majority to the Conservative while offering NDP the official opposition status. The failure of the liberal party is worth investigating. This analysis is aimed at establishing the mistakes done by the Liberal party and their impact in their campaign. It will deal with the leadership, organization, policy, and funding of the party.

Problems in the Liberal party started in December 2008, when Michael Ignatieff was confirmed as the leader without going through a leadership race. This meant that Ignatieff as a leader did not go through the public scrutiny that accompanies such contestations.  The party faced organization, policy and funding problems during the run-up to the 2011 elections. On top of these challenges, the caucus was disunited, and the party leader was seen as “an albatross around its neck” (50).

The party did not have a clear direction as Ignatieff seemed to lack both conviction and direction of his values and views on issues pertaining to the country. This led to his branding by the competitors as a “visitor”, which dented his campaign. The national politics and personality of the leaders are intertwined in Canada. Ignatieff suffered greatly because of his personality despite having a great command and understanding of the country’s issues. A closer reading of Marland (194) also indicates that strategy is a great weapon for those who use it. Unlike their competitors, the Liberal party was involved in internal wrangling that it lost its main focus. Further, the smear campaigns by its competitors forced Ignatieff to take a defensive position while the Conservative party was holding grassroots meetings with electorates (Marland, 166).

Ignatieff’s inability to organize his party, and his inadequate leadership in policy formulation took a toll on the party’s support in its strongholds. The biggest question was on the policy and values adopted by Ignatieff as a party leader and the party in general. The people were not clear on what the party stood for; hence its supporters were disillusioned and easily persuaded to support other parties that seemed to have a direction. The challenges were overwhelming since Ignatieff lacked political experience needed to deal with a competitive environment like the one that ensued in the election of 2011. This adds to the argument that personality is essential to success of a political party. This is complimented by the leader’s ability to deal with challenges both inside and outside the party.

The party leadership haphazardly organized the Liberal Express tour meant to popularize the party among the electorates. However, this too seemed to hit a dead end as its rating changed marginally. According to polls conducted prior to January 2011, over 64 percent of Liberals wanted Michael Ingatieff replaced. Efforts to recover from this did not bear fruits. It can be deduced that lack of strong and clear leadership in the Liberal party was preparing the ground for a dismal party performance.

Instead of coming up with a strong response to the smear ad campaign by the Conservative, the Liberals launched lackluster campaign that only served to show Ignatieff’s incompetence in political matters (Jeffrey, 54). At first, the Liberal party complained that it did not have money to run ad campaigns like its competitor. The negative perception created around Ingatieff would later prove too enormous to dispel during the election period. At this juncture, it is evident that Liberal Party lacked funds, organization, and leadership necessary to position it as a strong party capable of forming a minority government.

Lack of policy was the other issue that came out clearly in the run-up to the election. Jeffrey states that the Liberal party maintained its power position because of its ability to reinvent as circumstances changed (57). Their updates would be updated as they changed their leaders, allowing them to remain relevant to issues of the day. Ignatieff failed to come up with his own policies plunging the party into a realm of confusion. Even supporters of Ignatieff’s leadership started complaining about “lack of concrete policy agenda” (Jeffrey 59). This discontentment was evident in the 2008-2011 polls (Turcotte 201).

The campaign was another area where luck was not on the Liberal side. NDP was performing badly, and the Liberal leaders did not want to join with them. After the vote of no-confidence, parties went into a campaign mood, and the internet was a big addition to the tools of campaigning. According to Marland, voting in the electoral districts had changed in the advent of the internet –a 24/7 media (167). The Electoral Boundaries Readjustment Act demarcates the boundaries of the electoral districts in Canada.  The Canada Elections Act governs the campaigning, fundraising, candidate nominations, staffing, election communication, and spending (Marland 168; Clarke, Scotto, Reifler, and Kornberg, 283).

Legislation stipulated that parties that qualified would accrue $2 annually for each vote they received. This led to a hotly contested race since “bringing the vote up [was] important because of the election financing” (Marland 168). However, efforts by the Liberal party were thwarted by the strong campaign by Conservatives. Liberals were gaining traction in most places, and they were sure their campaign strategy was working despite Conservative’s strong ad campaign (Jeffrey, 67). However, despite their seemingly large influence, the polls released on April 9 prior to leaders’ debates showed that their rating had not changed as much as they thought (Jeffrey, 67; Clarke et al. 300). They expected a minority government after the Fortieth Parliament, but this was increasingly becoming a farfetched dream. Liberal MPs such as Siobhan Coady were on campaign mode “and maintained active online presence” (Marland 169) as she focused on winning her seat back.

The tables were turning; after the vote of no confidence against the government, many incumbents in British Columbia retired, leaving more seats to be contested. The Liberals concentrated on dealing with internal matters. Due to lack of funds, they were unable to strategize and act in such a magnitude as did the Conservatives. This contributed to low acceptance of their already unclear policies. According to Marland, the seats left by the retired incumbents offered a great opportunity to increase each party’s triage (170). Competitive seats would require more resources. The parties spent money in hiring workers, communications, sending leaders to visit marginal ridings, support of major candidates, and in competitive races. Conservatives hand almost triple the Liberal budget, therefore, they were able to inject more money into these campaigns than could the Liberals.

The Conservative party was more disciplined and focused than the Liberal party (Farney and Malloy 255). After the vote of no-confidence was passed, the conservative party increased its budget campaign. They organized informal meeting in electoral districts and engaged electors on dialogue that were more effective that the debates held on national television (Jeffrey 68).  Candidate selection at the party level was mired with controversies despite the high level of scrutiny into their background.  This was common in most parties. The leadership of the party worried about the representation of the party’s message during the campaign period. Due to these controversies, some people chose to run independently.  Others, who chose not to be affiliated with any party, did so in order to raise awareness on issues that would otherwise have not been heard (Marland 172).

Constituency campaigns are a replica of the national duel, representing “the parties’ local sales force” 174. The Conservative party was successful in designing and empowering its constituency contenders to market the party. In areas such as New Westminster and Edmonton, informal meetings were held with electors. The decision to use such “meetings instead of doing media interviews” proved to be very successful (179). Farney and Malloy talk of this discipline and the ideologies of the Conservative party as some of the factors that lead their win in 2011 federal elections. Marland reiterates that Conservative party funds were redistributed to targeted electoral seats. This helped the party to distribute money effectively back to the electoral districts. The internet was also used to raise funds as well as popularizing candidates (189).

From this analysis, it is clear that the campaign style of the Liberal party was shaky from the start. It lacked leadership and strategy. Further, the party could not raise enough money to fund its campaigns. The style of leadership and campaign style was shaped by the Ignatieff’s personality. However, there are other forces that lead to such a campaign style. First, the party did not have funds to run robust ad campaign as its competitor.


 

25 August 2014 In Blogs

Entrepreneurial finance entails application and implementation of all financial tools, principles, and techniques to the planning, funding, valuation, and all other operations of an entrepreneurial venture (San Diego State University, 2014). In this case, an entrepreneurial venture refers to entire entrepreneurial life cycle. Entrepreneurial firms go through various growth stages. As a firm grows, the managers must ensure that the firm has sustainable financial flow. Firms that have cash flows that are insufficient to meet the obligations usually experience financial distress. Restructuring entails improving factors such as assets, loan interest, and all financial repayments. Generally, the role of entrepreneurial finance is anticipating and avoiding any kind of financial distress to a firm (GCASE, 2010).

Entrepreneurial Growth Life Cycle Using Churchill and Lewis Growth Model

Churchill and Lewis growth model give six growth stages that any venture goes through.  The stages are conception, survival, profitability and sustainability, profitability and growth take-off, and maturity stage. All the five stages have unique financial challenges. This implies that managers must ensure that they have the tools to handle unique challenges in specific growth stages (Churchill & Lewis, 1983).

i.                    Conception Phase

According to Churchill & Lewis C1983), this is the very first stage of growth of a business venture. At this phase entrepreneur is in his or her full sense and thus responsible for ensuring that all of the business activities happens as planned. This stage features very minimal sense of formal planning and defining the business activities. It is characterized by sole intention of ensuring that the business survives (Yola, 2013). Key primary sources of funds in this stage include entrepreneur’s own finance, securing loans, and using credit cards.  Key secondary sources of finance include finance from family and friends and buying equity shares in other companies. Many businesses collapse at this stage (Muriithi & Ventures 2014).

ii.                  Survival

At this development phase, the business has attainable a workable status but its key agenda is survival. Churchill and Lewis growth model explain that businesses at this phase have an ordinary organization structure. The founder of the business usually heads the business. The founder carries the face of the business. Few people might be employed depending with the nature of the business. However, the employees do not have liberty to make decisions. Decisions are made by the owner (Muriithi & Ventures 2014). The level of formally planning the business is usually too low. Many businesses will start making profits at this level. For the purpose of financing a business, entrepreneur can dig deeper in his or her own sources of finance as well as seeking more from family and friends. If funds collected from the two sources are not sufficient, the entrepreneur should seek more financing form formal venture investors such as ‘venture capitalists’ and ‘business angels’.

iii.                Profitability and Stabilization

At this growth phase, the business venture has grown into a large venture. Therefore, the owner hires more employees. Duties including freedom to make decisions are delegated to the employees (Muriithi & Ventures 2014). Additionally, the owner is still the top manager of the business but assisted by a management team. Further growth of the business will force the manager to lose total control of the business to other executive managers employed. Churchill and Lewis model explain that any business at this growth stage will have a different identity with the owner. Companies start registering new shareholders at this stage.  Key sources of finance at this stage include money from business operations, customers and suppliers, venture capitalists, government special assistance programs such as low interest loans, and loans from commercial banks (Yola, 2013).

iv.                Profitability and Growth

At this stage, the venture starts recording increased profits or revenue (Yola, 2013). However, most firms will stay at the previous stage for a very long time until its owner decides to incur more expenses in bid to have more resources in the business. Availability of enough resources marks the start of this fourth growth stage. The owners are tasked with two key responsibilities, inter alia, ensuring firm profitability and finding competent managers. Key sources of finance at this stage include money from business operations, customers and suppliers, and venture capitalists (Muriithi & Ventures 2014).

v.                  Take-off

Churchill and Lewis model explain that at this stage owners are unsuccessful in managing the business. Take-off stage delays because of owners failing to admit their incapability of managing the business through having ineffective delegation. This stage is characterised by more investors, creditors, and suppliers. At this stage, company needs heavy external funding since the firm’s internal cash flow is usually insufficient (Yola, 2013).

vi.                Maturity

Yola (2013) explains that at this stage, the owner and the business are two distinctive elements. The business organization is fully decentralized. A formal management structure gets in place. The business has enough resources needed to sustain a high level of profitability. Managers have two key responsibilities: ensuring the entrepreneurial spirit is high and upholding high growth flexibility. Failure to observe these two goals will make the business have unwanted negative traits of avoiding risks and low level of innovation. At this stage,the venture receives high revenues and thus retained earnings is its major source of finance. If the venture needs additional funds, it can get it through issuing new bonds and ordinary shares through the help of investment banks. Additionally, matured firms can obtain debt and equity capital through selling more securities (GCASE, 2010).

Real Life Case Study

Apple Inc.  

Apple Inc. is a multinational corporation specialized in creating consumer electronics, computer software, personal computers, video distributors, and commercial servers (Jade, 2011). Core products of the company include iPad, iPhone, smart phones, iPod media players, macintosh, and tablet computers (Nelson, 2010).

Apple Inc. Life Cycle Process

i.                    Pre-foundation

In 1975 Steve Wozniak and Steve Jobs, the founders of the corporation, started the preliminary stage of starting a business. The pre-foundation stage was characterized by a lot of research. The research work was done for a short time and the two partners were ready to start the business. The founders used personal money to finance the pre-foundation phase (Nelson, 2010). After  one month research, Wazniak was able to design a video terminal that as used in logging on minicomputers at an organization’s call centers. The video terminal was sold to Alex Kamradt’s firm. This stage was also called Apple I (Jade, 2011).

ii.                  Apple II

The success of the video terminal encouraged the two partners to carry out more research on the field. They attended many conferences including Hembrew Computer Club meetings.  The lessons the two had in the research enabled them to build a microprocessor into the video terminal to make a complete computer (Nelson, 2010). The success of the computer made them produce many more electronic devices. This enabled them to move to the second stage, which they called Apple II in 1976. Apple II was characterized by designing more features in already designed devices. Even though the partners had a lot of venture commitments, sales returns were sufficient to finance the business (Jade, 2011).

iii.                Apple III

Jade (2011) explain that the manufacture of Apple II in May1980 marked the third growth stage of the company. The company started investing on plant and machinery since it had expanded beyond the control of the two partners. Key sources of financing the venture operations were from bank loans (Nelson, 2010).

iv.                Apple IPO

Products produced during Apple II phase enabled the business to grow. By 12th December 1980, the company had grown so much that it offered its first initial public offering (IPO) (Jade, 2011). This was the very first time the company went public (Times, 2010). The IPO helped the company generate a lot of capital that funded its entire investment projects. The IPO offering marked the last growth stage of Apple Inc. It attained it mature stage (Nelson, 2010; Moreano, 2011).

v.                  Comparative Analysis

There are several similarities between Churchill and Lewis growth model and the growth phases that Apple Inc. went through. More particularly, the two have differences and similarities on the way business ventures finance its operations. The differences and similarities are illustrated below. 

 

Stage

Financing as per the theory

Apple Inc. Financing

Stage 1

Personal sources

Personal sources

Stage 2

Personal sources, investors, friends and families

Personal sources

Stage 3

Commercial banks, Business operations,

Business operations

Stage 4

Venture capitalists, business operations, investors

Business operations and investors

Stage 5

Issuance of bonds and securities, external funding

Issuing of bonds and securities

Stage 6

Both external and internal funding

Both external and internal funding

 

The table shows some similarities as well as few differences. It appears that Churchill and Lewis growth model is good in predicting growth stages of business ventures. Additionally, the model shows the sources of finance in each stage which appears to be practical as per the findings on the case study.

Conclusion

Businesses grow through various stages until it attains maturity stage where it experience highest efficiency rates. Finance is one of the elementary needs for companies to develop to its maturity stage. Without sustainable financing businesses don’t go past its second growth state. Therefore, entrepreneurial finance is very crucial for growth of businesses.

 

25 August 2014 In Blogs

 It is the function of education in society to transmit from one generation to the next the relevant knowledge, skills, and values of that society and formation of the individual in the society. This essay explains how education develops hope and proficiency in a career.

Education develops an individual and brings self-fulfillment. Education provides opportunities for the fullest development of individual talents and personality, that is, develop potential interests and abilities, like character building, sound morals, religious values and growth into self –discipline, self-reliant, and integrated citizen. “It makes individual self-sufficient and productive, by use of individual talents in commerce, industries and agriculture and in any other service”­­­­­­­­­­ 1(Eshiwani, 1993.pg 29.) This full development helps one to be flexible to adopt and build a stable and modern society.

 

Forming of job attitude good preparation brings attitude of job satisfaction, that is, an infidel attitude towards his or her job. A high level of job satisfaction has positive attitude towards the job; a person who is dissatisfied with his or her job holds negative attitude towards the job. This job satisfaction brings with it lob involvement, that is, it measures the degree to which a person indentifies psychologically with his or her job and conscious of his or her performance level, important to self worth .Employee with a high level of job involvement strongly identify with his or her job and really o care about the kind of work they do. “employee tend to prefer jobs that give them opportunities to use their skills and abilities and offer a variety of tasks freedom and feedback on how well they are doing”2(Robbins,1996.Pg192)

02 August 2014 In Blogs

 Drug-Addicted Pregnant Mothers

Every pregnant woman must have a health life; eat food with required nutrients, exercise regularly, live in a healthy condition and get enough rest. Drug abuse is a dangerous move that any pregnant woman can make. According to Murphy (1998), 1% of babies born every month are found with symptoms of drug withdrawal. Drugs are very dangerous to children; they can affect the nervous system and prohibit growth of the child, the weight of the fetus and some can even lead to the death of the unborn child.

02 August 2014 In Blogs

The Economic Impacts of the Canadian Aging Population

Canada is one of the countries that are projected to have the largest aging population in the next 20 years. The growing older population creates concern in the related areas of employment and labour force, social welfare and housing, health ad income security, which will have greater impact on families, societies and the economy of Canada as a whole. A report sampled by the Congress of the Canadian Labour indicated that 72% of the population is not having enough income and 82% of adults are not getting the required heath care services. This shows that in case the economic policies are not changed, the Growth Domestic product (GDP) of Canada will drop drastically in the next 10 to 20 years to the level of the current developing countries.

02 August 2014 In Blogs

  Internal Auditor

Internal Auditing is the position in a company that deals with risk issues that may affect the company hence providing security assurance (Spira & Page, 2003). This is majorly necessary for small or upcoming businesses that would “die” immediately as soon as losses are experienced. It is therefore important to determine whether this position is worth going for in terms of the experience and skills that are to be obtained during the position period. I guess my decision lies with the roles and importance of internal auditing including the qualifications of this particular job.

02 August 2014 In Blogs

 Virtual Private Cloud

Abstract

There are new ways that are innovative when it comes to delivery of resources on an infrastructure in a way that is considered secure and isolated. This is the virtual private cloud solutions. Virtual Private Cloud guarantees resources to machines that virtually ran in the private cloud and they ensure that the virtual infrastructure gives a delivery in performance that is optimal. Such resources are central processing unit, IOPS and the capacity of the disks. 

02 August 2014 In Blogs

Chart of Accounts

A ‘make sense’ chart of accounts is important in every organisation. It is the very first task that should be considered and performed when an organisation is in the process of setting up the accounting system whether it is computerised or it is manually done. The chart of accounts is an essential tool that is necessary for gathering information and organising information about the business need and also keeping track of where the money in the business is coming in from and where it is being taken to (Bragg, 2010).  For any business to survive, it needs have useful information that will help it to remain competitive. The accounting system of a business should be used to provide information and its design should be able to accommodate the detailed and summarized information. The company or businesses financial reports are dependent mostly on how well the chart of accounts has been designed. A properly designed system of accounts in a business should have a chart of accounts as one of the key things.

02 August 2014 In Blogs

Corporate Social Responsibility

Introduction

The commonly used Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) policies in Emirates Airlines include emiratization and philanthropy. Nevertheless, employee safety, health and environmental concerns have also gained the concern. Companies that are local focus more on corporate emiratization and philanthropy i.e. bringing together all the nations under one labor umbrella.

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You are here: Home Blog Items filtered by date: August 2014